Proper fractions are less than 1 and improper fractions are more than one 1.1/2, 6/8 and 12/4, for example; the numerators for each of these fractions are 1, 6 and 12, respectively; and the denominators for each of these fractions are 2, 8 and 4, respectively.Both proper and improper fractions can be reduced to their lowest common denominator. She graduated Summa Cum Laude from Adelphi with a double masters degree in both Nursing Education and Nursing Administration and immediately began the PhD in nursing coursework at the same university. You have to determine which number can be divided evenly into both the numerator and the denominator to reduce fractions. In this section you will get a brief review of basic arithmetic calculations and a review of the ratio and proportion method that is used for the calculation of dosages and solutions.The three measurement systems that are used in pharmacology are the household measurement system, the metric system and the apothecary system.The household measurement system is typically only used for patients who are in the home and not in a hospital or another healthcare facility.

After reading it, you can undertake the Nursing Times learning unit Nurses need to be confident in calculating drug doses to safety administer medicines to patients as prescribed. Although there is some criticism of this method (Wright, 2008) it can be a useful tool if you are tired, stuck or need to check a calculation.In the amoxicillin example above, the nursing formula gives:The evidence is beginning to suggest that methods used to manipulate the available weight/volume strength to find the required weight/volume strength could be less error-prone (Wright, 2013). Many a times we have to calculate the drug doses based on the patient's weight. Visit our How to calculate drug doses and infusion rates accurately

Drug dosage calculations are required when the amount of medication ordered (or desired) is different from what is available on hand for the nurse to administer. endobj Even with the programmable I.V. For example, 4 grains is written as gr iv.Below is a table showing the weight and volume apothecary system measures and their approximate equivalents:The metric measurement system has volume measurements including liters (L), cubic milliliters (ml) and cubic centimeter (cc); its units of weight are (kg), grams (g), milligrams (mg) and micrograms (mcg).Below is a table displaying the metric length, volume and weight measurements and their equivalents:The two types of fractions are proper fractions and improper fractions. You can check this by adding up the dosage of each tablet and making sure the total is 30mg.When the medicine is a solution of a specific strength, calculations can become more complicated. We know that every substance, especially drugs, may be toxic if given in an inappropriate dose. That is why patients may receive drugs through parenteral means (this includes: subcutaneous, intramuscular, intraosseous, intravenous, etc). There are plenty of on-going clinical trials in which different doses of the drugs are being compared. All trademarks are the property of their respective trademark holders.Alene Burke RN, MSN is a nationally recognized nursing educator. <>>> • Remember that a formula often used for working out how many tablets to take or for a drug taken

More recent thinking on medication errors emphasises the need not just to prevent an error in the calculation, but to prevent any error from reaching the patient (Vincent, 2012).To calculate and administer the correct dose of a medicine to a patient, nurses need to understand the different measurements used for drug dosages in healthcare and be able to convert between different units of measurement. You should thus always check if you are administering the When treating a patient, or just taking a medication by yourself, we always need to wonder what is the exact dose of the drug we choose. This highlights the importance of ascertaining the factors behind medication errors, and potential solutions to these errors.Medication errors are most frequently due to the wrong dose, omitted or delayed medication or the wrong medication being administered (NPSA, 2009a).The most frequently cited error resulting in the wrong dose being administered stems from calculation errors. Moreover, there are more and more scientific data suggesting that individually performed dosage calculations (not only in pediatric patients) improve patient survival when compared with a standard treatment of fixed doses. <> ���&/; ��y�˰.��$�t������|�W�y�t�r�pڡl���,�Z��h� ���@�9�H�M·����2�T[��$/��%F�7w"�X��u������חo^e���A�,rUA*d�d&2&�